Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness

This is the official MAIA website with the most current version of the questionnaire and links to related articles. The questionnaire development was funded by the National Institute of Health (NCCAM) and is public domain. Copyright is with the University of California, San Francisco, and the application of the questionnaire (or parts of it) assumes the user’s agreement with the Permission and Copyright terms on page 2 of the questionnaire.

The Questionnaire
Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness

Original Article
Mehling WE, Price C, Daubenmier JJ, Acree M, Bartmess E, Stewart A. (2012) The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). PLoS ONE 7(11): e48230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048230
The open-access website

Related Publications
For the development and validation of the questionnaire, additional related publications:

  • Adam W. Hanley, Wolf E. Mehling, Eric L. Garland (2017) Holding the body in mind: Interoceptive awareness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Journal of Psychosomatic Research
  • Tiffany A. Brown, Laura A. Berner, et al (2017) Psychometric Evaluation and Norms for the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) in a Clinical Eating Disorders Sample. European Eating Disorders Review
  • Mehling W. (2016)  Differentiating attention styles and regulatory aspects of self-reported interoceptive sensibility. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20160013.
  • Bornemann B, Herbert BM, Mehling WE, Singer T. (2015) Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training. Frontiers in Psychology 5:1504. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01504
  • Mehling WE, Daubenmier J, Price CJ, Acree M, Bartmess E, Stewart AL (2013) Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain. Journal of Pain Research 2013:6, 403 – 418
  • Mehling WE, Wrubel J, Daubenmier JJ, Price C, Kerr CE, Silow T, Gopisetty V, Stewart AL (2011) Body Awareness: a phenomenological inquiry into the common ground of mind-body therapies. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:6. doi:10.1186/1747-5341-6-6
    The open access website
  • Mehling WE, Gopisetty V, Daubenmier J, Price CJ, Hecht FM, Stewart A. (2009) Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5614. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005614
    The open access website

Conference Poster
Mehling WE, Price CJ, Daubenmier JJ, Acree M, Bartmess E, Stewart A (2014) Body Awareness and the Practice of Yoga or Meditation in 443 Primary Care Patients with Past or Current Low Back Pain. Poster presented at the International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health (IRCIMH) Miami, FL


The questionnaire is also being translated into  Greek, Russian, Slovenian, and Turkish.

An English-language version for children age 7 and older is in preparation.

For an improved Version 2 of the MAIA, we are currently testing three additional items for each of two 3-item scales with relatively low internal consistency. We do not know yet which items will remain after additional planned factor analysis, but we can provide these upon request.

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